To correctly score the questionnaires, each version has to be identified and the appropriate scoring list has to be selected. Basically high score represent low quality of life and scoring involves the following steps

  1. Assorting numbers to the response scale, which is for age group II and III
    1= never, 2=seldom, 3=sometimes, 4=often, 5=all the time
    Please note: for the age group I, scoring is 1=never, 2=sometimes, 3=very often
    For negatively worded items, the above classification can be applied in which higher values represent a lower quality of life. For positively worded items, the score has to be recoded (see below).
  2. Recoding positively worded items
    Each item identified with a “R” has to be recoded so that numeric values assigned are reversed:
    1=all the time, 2=often, 3=sometimes, 4=seldom, 5= never (for age groups II and III)
    Note: for age group I, it is 1= very often, 2=sometimes, 3= never
    By recoding, high scores in positively worded items reflect not higher but lower quality of life. The then unidirectional values can subsequently be added to yield the summed scores according to the Scoring list for the respective questionnaire.
  3. Using the Scoring List [link here zu scoring list] it is necessary to identify which items belong to a subscale. Items to be recoded (see step 2) are marked with an “R”.
  4. Summing up the items belonging to a subscale yields the raw score per subscale. Its range lies between the lowest possible (number of items (n) x 1) and highest possible (number of items(n) x 5 in the older; or x 3 for the youngest) value of the respective scale.
  5. Comparing scores across subscales is possible. If this raw score is divided by the number of items in the scale, the resulting standardised scale score can have any (also decimal) value between 1 and 5 (or 3 for the youngest). A value of 1 represents the highest possible quality of life rating and a value of 5 (or three for the youngest) the lowest possible quality of life rating of the patient.
  6. Transferring a raw score to a transformed scale score between 0 and 100 makes it possible to express the scale score in percent between the lowest (0) and the highest (100) possible value. To obtain the transformed scale score (TSS) the following transformation rule has to be applied:
    Latex formula
    In age group II, a raw score of 20 on the “Physical Health” Scale is to be transformed:
    minimal possible raw score = 7
    possible range of raw scores = maximal possible raw score – minimal possible raw score
    =35-7 = 28
    Latex formula
  7. Producing the Total score of the specific Haemo-QoL age group version involves the addition of the subscale scores of a person using all items (instead of the subscale items only) of the questionnaire (again paying attention to the recoding procedure – see steps 1 and 2). Items may be added to form a total raw score (according to step 4, but using all items), a total standardized score (according to step 5, but using all items) or a total transformed score (according to step 6, but using all items)
  8.  Accumulating the values of more than one person – eg. a patient group – may be done by summarising the subscale and/or total scores of each individual in that group (on the level of raw, standardized or transformed scores) and dividing the respective result through the number of patients to produce the mean score of the group.
    NOTE: The above described scoring by hand may be made easier by using a scoring mask that can be easily produced from the scoring list (see step 3). In addition, the enclosed SPSS computer program routines can be used. To work with them, patient data have to be inputted into the computer and identified by variable names and labels, which are also suggested in the enclosed programs.